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Fr1da Science Newsletter
Issue 02 - March 2022
Dear Reader,
Welcome to the second issue of our Fr1da Science Newsletter.
If you are interested in receiving this newsletter in the future, please register HERE.

Please send any questions or feedback to diabetes.frueherkennung@helmholtz-muenchen.de.

Enjoy reading!
Your Fr1da team


The Fr1da study offers islet autoantibody screening to children aged 2 to 10 years, living in Bavaria, Germany, with the aim to diagnose type 1 diabetes (T1D) at a presymptomatic stage to

  • prevent life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
  • minimize psychological burden and uncertainty by training and intensive support of those affected
  • help to set new standards for early diagnosis of T1D
  • identify children who benefit from immune-based therapies to prevent insulin dependence

Children with a family history of T1D (first- or second-degree relative) can participate in screening between the ages of 1 and 21 years. All children can participate twice within the respective age ranges.


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Since the start of the Fr1da study in 2015,
  • total of 154,462 children participated in the islet autoantibody screening at least once, including
  • 5,905 (3.8 %) children with a first- or second-degree family history with T1D.
  • 3,662 children participated twice. (status November 2021)
  • 447 of 154,462 (0.3%) children were diagnosed with presymptomatic T1D (2 or more islet autoantibody positive)

Early diagnosis can prevent life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis in children:

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe complication at the onset of T1D with a recent prevalence of 44,7% in Germany (Reference).

In the Fr1da study
  • 128 of 447 children with presymptomatic T1D developed clinical stage 3 T1D >> 4 of 128 (3%) developed a DKA
  • 77 of 337 children with presymptomatic T1D and participation in the educational program developed clinical stage 3 T1D >> 1 of 77 (1.3%) developed a DKA
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The Fr1da team, in collaboration with the Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Munich, attempted to quantify the costs associated with public health screening for presymptomatic T1D as part of the Fr1da study in Bavaria and in forecasts for standard care.


In the Fr1da study the costs were

  • 28.17 (95% CI 19.96; 39.63) per child screened and
  • 9,117 (6,460; 12,827) per child diagnosed with presymptomatic T1D

The cost analysis covers the procurement, processing and analysis of the blood samples, as well as the communication of the results. It also includes expenses for tests to assess the beta cell function and blood sugar level, as well as for prevention training and counseling for affected children and their families.

Assuming a prevalence of presymptomatic T1D of 0.3%, as in the Fr1da study, the researchers assume that the costs could be reduced to about

  • 21.73 (16.76; 28.19) per child screened and
  • 7,035 (5,426; 9,124) per child diagnosed 

if screening were to be included in standard medical care in Germany.

Of the projected screening costs, €12.25 would be the costs in the medical practice, €9.34 for coordination and laboratory, and €0.14 for local diabetes clinics.


Since January 2020, the Fr1da study additionally offers screening of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

In order to request a detailed data extract (in compliance with our data transfer agreement) from this platform, please contact: diabetes.frueherkennung@helmholtz-muenchen.de

Click here to access the Fr1da & SARS-CoV-2 Dashboard
Read more


Design: PMID: 27194320
Results: PMID: 31990315
Assay development: PMID: 27552135
Monitoring: PMID: 26087338
Enrollment into prevention trials: PMID: 30197933
Antibody screening & higher SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate: PMID: 33163984
Antibody screening & SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate in children
: PMID: 33842906
Costs of public health screening: PMID: 35156126
Would you like to read more about Fr1da? Visit us on our Fr1da website
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